THEORY OF 3JCN MUSIC NOTATION
The following words show tempo of the piece/song:
Largo Very slow
Larghetto Not as slow as largo
Adagio Slow, leisurely
Andante Moving with a moderate tempo
Andantino Faster than andante
Allegretto A little slower than allegro
Allegro Moderately fast
Vivace Lively, animated, brisk
Presto Fast, rapid
Prestissimo Very rapidly
Tempo designations and their approximate beats per minute:
Prestissimo Very Fast greater than 200
Presto Fast 170 to 200
Allegro Moderately Fast 120 to 170
Moderato Moderate 100 to 120
Andante Medium tempo 80 to 100
Adagio Slow 65 to 80
Larghetto Slower 55 to 65
Largo Very Slow less than 55
Sounds, including music, can be barely audible, or loud enough to hurt your ears, or anywhere in between. When they want to talk about the loudness of a sound, scientists and engineers talk about amplitude. Musicians talk about dynamics. The amplitude of a sound is a particular number, usually measured in decibels, but dynamics are relative; an orchestra playing fortissimo is going to be much louder than a single violin playing fortissimo.
Pianissimo Very soft pp
Piano Soft p
Mezzo piano Moderately soft mp
Mezzo forte Moderately loud mf
Forte Loud f
Fortissimo Very loud ff
Crescendo Increasing in loudness cresc or <
Decrescendo decreasing in loudness decresc or >
Diminuendo diminishing in loudness dim.
Rinforzando sudden increase in loudness rfz.
Sforzando play the note with sudden emphasis sfz.
Accelerando accelerating accel.
Ritardando Slowing down rit.
Fermata Stop before proceeding *
Rubato "Robbed", free rhythm #
Style in which the music is to be played is indicated by the following designations
Amoroso tender and affectionate
Animato animated; lively
Calando gradually softer and slower
Cantabile in a singing style
Con Anima with life and animation
Con Brio with vigor and spirit
Con Fuoco with energy or passion
Doloro so sorrowfully
Grandioso with grandeur
Legato smooth and connected
Marcato marked and stressed
Marzialin the style of a march
Morendo dying away
Perdendosi dying away
Religioso religious, solemn
Rubato taken out of tempo
Sempre always, continuously
Soto voce in an undertone
Staccato short and detached
Tenuto sustained, held for full value
Refers to the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on single note or between multiple notes or sound.
Fermata (*) placed above a note means to pause the note as long as possible
Staccato ( . ) a dot placed above or below a note means to play it short
Legato ( -- ) Legato is the opposite of staccato. A horizontal bar placed above a note means
to play it long (similar with Tenuto)
Tie (underline) a underline below notes that connects two same notes,
not to attack (play) the second note.
Slur (a paranthesis ) a pair of paranthesis rounded two different pitches, indicating
that are to be played smoothly.
Portamento ( ~ ) A portamento is a smooth glide between the two notes, including all the pitches
in between. For some instruments, like violin and trombone, this includes even
the pitches in between the written notes. For other instruments, such as guitar,
it means sliding through all of the possible notes between the two written pitches.
Tenuto ( - ) a line above or below the note means to play the full value of the note (like Legato)
Accent ( ^ ) an accent placed above or below the note means to emphasise the note
accents are usually performed by making the accented note, or the beginning of
the accented note, louder than the rest of the music.
Scoops ( / ) and Fall-offs ( \ ) similar to portamento but there is one end note
Breath Mark ( ' ) an apostrophe placed above the song line means to take a breath
A breath mark or luftpause, for bowed instruments, a bow lift, is a symbol used in musical notation. It directs the performer of the music passage to take a breath (for wind instruments and vocalists) or to make a slight pause (for non-wind instruments). For bowed instruments, it means to lift the bow. This pause is normally intended to affect the duration of the preceding note and not the tempo. It is usually placed above the song line and at the ends of phrases.
Clarity Terms :
L'istesso tempo same tempo
Mosso moved, agitated
Non troppo not too much
Piu mosso faster
Poco a poco little by little
Simile in the same manner
These lists include only a fraction of the total amount of foreign language words that you will see in sheet music. These words are Italian, however composers from other countries have been known to use their native language in designating these ideas. If you ever come across these terms, you should look them up in a Music Dictionary or Foreign language textbook.